Shot Blasting is a surface finishing method that prevent metal fatigue or cracking as well as for cleaning and surface hardening. In this method, role of shot is to remove impurities, rust, scattered pieces of rubbish or remains that may affect metal strength. It is environment friendly and a rapid, cost effective surface finishing method which is used for cleaning, polishing metal and other surface by applying high speed stream of shots.
Shot Blasting also has multiple uses wherein it can remove hard scrapes, scales and burrs, being an excellent source of rust remover. Since it does effectively clean surface corrosions that may interfere with the part's integrity, blasting becomes a reliable approach to surface treatment. Whether it is surface preparation for coating or removing harsh contaminants off the material, shot blasting provides the best result and a suave surface profile that increases surface life and coating firmness.
Shot Blasting somewhat varies from shot peening as in the latter a powerful compressive force induces the hard media to strike the area and generate surface change that increases surface strength and increases its fatigue life by providing strength and giving metal feasibility.
There are two types of shot blasting:-
Grit blasting- Grit blasting is a process by which abrasive particles are made to impinge on a component to clean or modify its surface properties.Grit blasting is used to remove sand and scale in the fettling of castings, and for dressing of stampings and billets, etc. It is often used to prepare surfaces before welding (removal of scale, rust or paint), and afterwards to improve the adhesion of coatings (e.g. paint, or galvanising).
Abrasive blasting- Abrasive blasting is the operation of forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure to smooth a rough surface, roughen a smooth surface, shape a surface, or remove surface contaminants.
There are two Technologies used in Shot Blasting Machine:
1. Wheel blasting- converts electric motor energy into kinetic abrasive energy by rotating its wheels. Each wheels capacity goes from 60 kg a minute to 1200kg/min. Wheel blast machines are used where big parts or large areas of parts to be cleaned at the same time.
Wheel Blasting is a blast operation without air instead uses a wheel with centrifugal force to propel the abrasive against the parts. Because this wheel spins at 3600 RPM with a high velocity and high efficiency blasting operation with typically quickly time cycles. Due to its high velocity this type of blast utilizes metallic abrasives such as steel shot, steel grit, stainless steel shot and grit and cut-wire which are available in different hardness.
The advantage of wheel blasting is its speed of cleaning and the ability to efficiently blast large components. Also, it does not require compressed air to operate like air blast equipment. This can be economically very high, especially when blasting a large component which will require multiple air blast guns. However, the high velocity is also its nemesis because it can damage parts that can’t handle this pressure and you are also limited to the type of abrasive that you can use.
2. Air-blasting- In this procedure machine can take the form of a blast cabinet; the blast media is accelerated by compressed air and projected by nozzles in component. Also a media-water mix can be used in it for some of special applications, that would called wet blasting.
In this procedure machine can take the form of a blast cabinet; the blast media is accelerated by compressed air and projected by nozzles in component. Also a media-water mix can be used in it for some of special applications that will be called wet blasting.
Shot blasting process is used to prepare the surface of metal before applying any coating by removing debris and paint. Every industry that uses metal applies this method in daily practices for removing of corrosion, paint and other films and preparing surface for coating. This Shot blasting method produces a roughened texture to improves adhesion of ornamental toppings, therefore it leaves the substrate dry or clean that get ready for recoating also. Cast iron work is also shot blasted to remove old paint layers.
Shot blasting are being used in almost every industry that uses metal, foundry, shipbuilding, automotive, construction, railways and shipbuilding industries etc. Shot blasting is Machine and Method also which is used to clean, strengthen and polishing the metal surface preparation.
Removing Corrosion: Shot blasting helps to remove rust and corrosive materials from the surface. Meanwhile, corrosive builds include rust, chemical stains, faded paint, mill scale and heat treatment scale etc.
Surface Preparation: It is the most efficient and effective process to prepare a metal surface prior to painting or coating and make them smooth.
The Environment: This is one of the best environmentally friendly options for corrosion removal and surface preparation to painting or coating.
Shot blasting machine is equipment that is specially designed and produced for individual customer requirements. This machine is used for cleaning structure steel that strongly blasts the original condition steel parts to remove the surface rust, welding slag and scale, corrosion prevention effect and making it show a uniform metal colour with improved coating quality. The shot blasting equipment is composed of former auxiliary chamber, roller conveyor mechanism projectile cycle apparatus, dust removal system, maintenance platforms and electrical control system components.
Shot blasting machine mainly consist of six basic parts: blast wheel, cabinet, work handling mechanism, elevator, separator, dust collector. Different machines are used for different purposes like table type machine is used for heavy components and portable air operated machine is used for cleaning casting. The numbers of wheels installed in machine depends on the type of job to be shot blasted and rate of work. Role of shot also depends on work For example: A smaller size steel shot can be used to produce smooth polished surface while large shot can be used to remove heavy flash. In most industries shot blasting works by using wheel with paddle type blades that propel steel shot at surface with high velocity. This entire process is done in an enclosed chamber that separates the dust which is sent to separate dust collector. This entire process is controlled by many factors such as shot impact force, size of shot, rate of machine level and concentration used. Blast machines are used in welded construction industries by facility owners for cleaning, controlling of corrosion and preparing surfaces.
The chamber of a shot blasting machine uses 8mm of thickness in the steel plates and the protection liner for the direct blasted area is 10mm in thickness SPMn13 steel tiles.
5mm thickness steel plates are used in front and back chamber, near the blasted chamber area, 65 Mn steel plate is installed for a protective purpose. Bucket elevator and separator use 4mm thickness steel plates. The rollers uses diameter 121mm seamless steel pipe with a thickness of 6mm. Metal ducting for dust collector has 2mm thickness steel plates.
The PL frequency inverter is Omron or Mitsubishi while other electric components use CHINT or each part structure of Shot Blasting Machine:
The arrangement is simulated by the computer for the blasted wheels. These include 6 blast wheels on both the upper and the bottom of the cabinet to give through the blasting of the work pieces. These blast wheels function on the basis of transverse blasting theory. The blasting direction is designed in a way to create a 90 degree angle with the steel plate marching direction. Axial direction and the work piece form a proper angle to the perfect effect of blasting and to avoid the abrasive accumulation on the surface of the steel plate.
The welding of the steel plate and structural steel is the one that has sufficient strength and rigidity. The chamber body shape, size and blast wheel installation location are confirmed through the 3 D optimizing and dynamic simulation for ensuring the work-piece cleaning effect, also to maximize the efficiency of the equipment. The cleaning chamber uses 10mm thick SPMn13 that provides a durable service with good wear resistance. The guard plate holds down nuts that are made from chromium cast. The bottom of the inside chamber is equipped with a high chromium wear resistant cast iron plates with holes in it to avoid the abrasive destroy grating, hopper and the lower screw conveyor that has a long life.
The double disc riveted together constitutes the impeller body that is equipped with eight leaves on the impeller body and the points located in the centre of the blast wheel installed on the one that is driven by the motor spindle. The hood is lined with a guard board that is directionally set to be mounted on the casing into the tube. With the synchronized rotating blades the velocity of the projectile is created. Projectile flies directionally out of the window, setting the orientation to clean up on the surface of work piece. Because the points round pill and the synchronous rotating blades ensure the projectile towards the blade with no vibration which reduces the wear and tear of the blade.
Abrasive mixture is lifted to the drum sieve by a bucket elevator, the drum sieve inside and outside has spiral blades. The inside spiral blade makes the large pieces to discharge; abrasive, sand and dust mixture after being sieved is then pushed outside the spiral blade which after that forms a flow curtain. By adjusting the weight of the position the abrasive can be completely separated.
All those using the Japanese Mitsubishi PLC control, Omron or manual and automatic operations can easily realise the conveyor speed is controlled by the inverter that can step less speed regulation.
The entry at the production line, shot blasting room access door and the other important parts are all equipped with interlock switch devices for safety. The chamber for blasting of underground foundation pit is also equipped with lamp power sockets for easy lighting access.
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The Standard Unit This is a contractor’s machine Finished in blue hammerite. The machine is capable of operating continuously at a maximum working pressure of 150 PSI.
The BP50-1 Blast Pot is a small compact blast pot ideally suited for touch up blasting applications, and for use in confined spaces where access is restricted.
Hazardous duty hand light making it ideal for inspection or small area illumination. This explosion proof drop light with tempered glass globe and full swivel hook, suitable for max 100w bulb.