Shot Blasting is a surface finishing method that prevent metal fatigue or cracking as well as for cleaning and surface hardening. In this method, role of shot is to remove impurities, rust, scattered pieces of rubbish or remains that may affect metal strength. It is environment friendly and a rapid, cost effective surface finishing method which is used for cleaning, polishing metal and other surface by applying high speed stream of shots.
Shot Blasting also has multiple uses wherein it can remove hard scrapes, scales and burrs, being an excellent source of rust remover. Since it does effectively clean surface corrosions that may interfere with the part's integrity, blasting becomes a reliable approach to surface treatment. Whether it is surface preparation for coating or removing harsh contaminants off the material, shot blasting provides the best result and a suave surface profile that increases surface life and coating firmness.
Shot blasting is a specially designed process for surface finishing where small metals or mineral pellets also referred to as blast media are blasted onto the surface at an incredibly high speed that can range from 200 to 800 feet per second. The impact the blast media has on the surface due to this process is what gives the desired effect of perfect surface finishing.
Shot Blasting has been categorised into two sub- categories that are grit blasting and abrasive blasting:-
Grit Blasting - Grit blasting is a process where steel grits are used as a form of abrasive for the removal of paint and rust from metal surfaces. The use of steel grits leaves a smoother finish. Steel grits are often preferred due to its fast cutting nature which works perfectly on the surface. This is a process in which abrasive particles are forced to create an influence on the component for cleaning or modifying the properties of its surface. This technique of Grit blasting is used for the purpose of removal of sand and scale during the fettling of castings, for the dressing of stampings and billets, many more. This process is mostly used for the preparation of surfaces before welding takes place (the removal of scale, rust or old coat of paint) also afterwards it is used to improve the effect of adhesion of the coatings (such as paint or galvanising).
Abrasive blasting- This type of shot blasting requires an operation with forceful propelling of a stream of abrasive material against the surface, while under high pressure for:
There are two Technologies used in Shot Blasting Machine. Shot Blasting has been categorised into two sub- categories that are grit blasting and abrasive blasting:
Wheel blasting: An airless operation, the wheel blasting technique uses a wheel with centrifugal force for propelling the abrasive against the surface. This happens as the wheel spins at at a speed of 3600 RPM with a high velocity and high efficiency blasting operation with quicker time cycles. Because of its high velocity this type of blasting technique uses metallic abrasives like the steel shots, stainless steel shot and grit, steel grit, or cut wire that are available in different hardness levels. This technique works by converting the electric motor energy into kinetic abrasive energy through the process of continuous rotation of its wheels. Each wheel has a capacity that ranges from 60 kg per minute to 1200kg per minute. The machines that use Wheel blasting are used in places that have big parts or large areas of the parts that need to be cleaned at a similar time. This is a blast operation technique but instead of air it uses a wheel that exhibits centrifugal force for propelling the abrasive against the parts of the surface being blasted.
Some of the major advantages of wheel blasting offers are its speed of cleaning and its ability to efficiently blast large surfaces and components. Moreover there is no need to use the compressed air for its operation like in the case of the air blast equipment. This technique is extremely economically as blasting a large component will require multiple air blast guns but this technique does it in one go. Although, the high velocity is also its enemy as it can lead to damage on the parts which cannot handle the pressure of wheel blasting. Another drawback of wheel blasting is the limited options of the type of abrasive that can be used.
Air-blasting: The air blasting machines are made in such a way that they help to inject shots like those of glass beads through a nozzle with the help of compressed air that is supplied by an air compressor. The air blasting machines are usually divided into types of:
The air blasting machine has a dust collector where the injected shots are re- circulated through the suction of force and separation from foreign matter as they are re- circulated and injected again. This dry process is environment friendly. Apart from the regular blasting media being used, a media based on water mix can also be used in it for some of the special applications and this is referred to as wet blasting. In the machine that uses air blasting can take the form of a blast cabinet, here the blast media is accelerated with compressed air that is projected through nozzles in thee component.
Shot blasting is the process that is used for preparing the surface of the metal before the application of any type of coating by the removal of debris and old paint. Each industry that uses metal can apply this method in their daily practices for the removal of corrosion, old paint and other films for preparing the surface for coating them. The method of Shot blasting produces a rough texture for improved adhesion of the ornamental toppings, thus it leaves the substrate dry or clean which ultimately gets ready for recoating. Cast iron work is also used as a shot blasting media for the removal of old paint layers.
Shot Blasting with its effectively powerful technique of treating and cleaning the surface has found its application in a variety of industries like the Aerospace Industry, Energy, Automotive Industry, Steel Fabrication, Aluminium Industry, Rail Shipyard, Wire Bar, Profile and belt De- scaling, Construction Industry, Foundry and Forge Industry, Medical, General Manufacturing, Military, Steel Plate, Strip and Tube De- scaling etc.
As we have seen in its applications, the Shot blasting machines are used in almost all types of industries that use materials like metal, foundry, automotive, shipbuilding, construction, railways, shipbuilding industries and many more. The Shot blasting is not only a machine but is also a method that is used for cleaning, strengthening and polishing of the metal surface preparation. The following advantages make the use of shot blasting an indispensible one:
Shot blasting machine is equipment that is specially designed and produced for individual customer requirements. This machine is used for cleaning structure steel that strongly blasts the original condition steel parts to remove the surface rust, welding slag and scale, corrosion prevention effect and making it show a uniform metal colour with improved coating quality. The shot blasting equipment is composed of former auxiliary chamber, roller conveyor mechanism projectile cycle apparatus, dust removal system, maintenance platforms and electrical control system components.
Shot blasting machine mainly consist of six basic parts: blast wheel, cabinet, work handling mechanism, elevator, separator, dust collector. Different machines are used for different purposes like table type machine is used for heavy components and portable air operated machine is used for cleaning casting. The numbers of wheels installed in machine depends on the type of job to be shot blasted and rate of work. Role of shot also depends on work For example: A smaller size steel shot can be used to produce smooth polished surface while large shot can be used to remove heavy flash. In most industries shot blasting works by using wheel with paddle type blades that propel steel shot at surface with high velocity. This entire process is done in an enclosed chamber that separates the dust which is sent to separate dust collector. This entire process is controlled by many factors such as shot impact force, size of shot, rate of machine level and concentration used. Blast machines are used in welded construction industries by facility owners for cleaning, controlling of corrosion and preparing surfaces.
The chamber of a shot blasting machine uses 8mm of thickness in the steel plates and the protection liner for the direct blasted area is 10mm in thickness SPMn13 steel tiles.
5mm thickness steel plates are used in front and back chamber, near the blasted chamber area, 65 Mn steel plate is installed for a protective purpose. Bucket elevator and separator use 4mm thickness steel plates. The rollers uses diameter 121mm seamless steel pipe with a thickness of 6mm. Metal ducting for dust collector has 2mm thickness steel plates.
The PL frequency inverter is Omron or Mitsubishi while other electric components use CHINT or each part structure of Shot Blasting Machine:
The arrangement is simulated by the computer for the blasted wheels. These include 6 blast wheels on both the upper and the bottom of the cabinet to give through the blasting of the work pieces. These blast wheels function on the basis of transverse blasting theory. The blasting direction is designed in a way to create a 90 degree angle with the steel plate marching direction. Axial direction and the work piece form a proper angle to the perfect effect of blasting and to avoid the abrasive accumulation on the surface of the steel plate.
The welding of the steel plate and structural steel is the one that has sufficient strength and rigidity. The chamber body shape, size and blast wheel installation location are confirmed through the 3 D optimizing and dynamic simulation for ensuring the work-piece cleaning effect, also to maximize the efficiency of the equipment. The cleaning chamber uses 10mm thick SPMn13 that provides a durable service with good wear resistance. The guard plate holds down nuts that are made from chromium cast. The bottom of the inside chamber is equipped with a high chromium wear resistant cast iron plates with holes in it to avoid the abrasive destroy grating, hopper and the lower screw conveyor that has a long life.
The double disc riveted together constitutes the impeller body that is equipped with eight leaves on the impeller body and the points located in the centre of the blast wheel installed on the one that is driven by the motor spindle. The hood is lined with a guard board that is directionally set to be mounted on the casing into the tube. With the synchronized rotating blades the velocity of the projectile is created. Projectile flies directionally out of the window, setting the orientation to clean up on the surface of work piece. Because the points round pill and the synchronous rotating blades ensure the projectile towards the blade with no vibration which reduces the wear and tear of the blade.
Abrasive mixture is lifted to the drum sieve by a bucket elevator, the drum sieve inside and outside has spiral blades. The inside spiral blade makes the large pieces to discharge; abrasive, sand and dust mixture after being sieved is then pushed outside the spiral blade which after that forms a flow curtain. By adjusting the weight of the position the abrasive can be completely separated.
All those using the Japanese Mitsubishi PLC control, Omron or manual and automatic operations can easily realise the conveyor speed is controlled by the inverter that can step less speed regulation.
The entry at the production line, shot blasting room access door and the other important parts are all equipped with interlock switch devices for safety. The chamber for blasting of underground foundation pit is also equipped with lamp power sockets for easy lighting access.
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The Standard Unit This is a contractor’s machine Finished in blue hammerite. The machine is capable of operating continuously at a maximum working pressure of 150 PSI.
The BP50-1 Blast Pot is a small compact blast pot ideally suited for touch up blasting applications, and for use in confined spaces where access is restricted.
Hazardous duty hand light making it ideal for inspection or small area illumination. This explosion proof drop light with tempered glass globe and full swivel hook, suitable for max 100w bulb.